Inflammation and cardiovascular events in individuals with and without chronic kidney disease

Kidney Int. 2008 Jun;73(12):1406-12. doi: 10.1038/ki.2008.75. Epub 2008 Apr 9.


Inflammation and chronic kidney disease predict cardiovascular events. Here we evaluated markers of inflammation including fibrinogen, albumin and white blood cell count in individuals with and without stages 3-4 chronic kidney disease to assess inflammation as a risk factor for adverse events, the synergy between inflammation and chronic kidney disease, and the prognostic ability of these inflammatory markers relative to that of C-reactive protein. Using Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities and Cardiovascular Health Study data, inflammation was defined by worst quartile of at least 2 of these 3 markers. In Cox regression models, inflammation was assessed as a risk factor for a composite of cardiac events, stroke and mortality as well as components of this composite. Among 20 413 patients, inflammation was identified in 3594 and chronic kidney disease in 1649. In multivariable analyses, both inflammation and chronic kidney disease predicted all outcomes, but their interaction was non-significant. In 5597 patients with C-reactive protein levels, inflammation and elevated C-reactive protein had similar hazard ratios. When focusing only on individuals with the worst quartile of white cell count and albumin, results remained consistent.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers / analysis
  • C-Reactive Protein / analysis
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / etiology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / mortality
  • Chronic Disease
  • Female
  • Fibrinogen / analysis
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / complications*
  • Kidney Diseases / complications*
  • Leukocyte Count
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Risk Factors
  • Serum Albumin / analysis


  • Biomarkers
  • Serum Albumin
  • Fibrinogen
  • C-Reactive Protein