Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS). In MS, myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) secrete elevated amounts of IL-23, a potent proinflammatory cytokine, compared to healthy donors. Here, we examined the role of CD46, a complement binding factor, in mDCs by analyzing cytokine and chemokine production in healthy donors and patients with MS. There were striking differences between these groups with increased IL-23p19, CCL3 and CCL5 production, but decreased CCL2 levels in patients. This demonstrates major differences of DC activation upon CD46 activation, with a potential role in the pathogenesis of MS.