Chromatin-remodelling mechanisms include DNA methylation, histone-tail acetylation, poly-ADP-ribosylation, and ATP-dependent chromatin-remodelling processes. Some epigenetic modifications among others have been observed in cancer cells, namely (1) local DNA hypermethylation and global hypomethylation, (2) alteration in histone acetylation/deacetylation balance, (3) increased or decreased poly-ADP-ribosylation, and (4) failures in ATP-dependent chromatin-remodelling mechanisms. Moreover, these alterations can influence the response to classical anti-tumour treatments. Drugs targeting epigenetic alterations are under development. Currently, DNA methylation and histone deacetylase inhibitors are in use in cancer therapy, and poly-ADP-ribosylation inhibitors are undergoing clinical trials. Epigenetic therapy is gaining in importance in pharmacology as a new tool to improve anti-cancer therapies.