Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and lethal primary malignant brain tumor. Although considerable progress has been made in surgical and radiation treatment for glioma patients, the impact of these advances on clinical outcome has been disappointing. Therefore, the development of novel therapeutic approaches is essential. Recent reports demonstrate that systemic immunotherapy using dendritic cells (DCs) or peptide vaccines is capable of inducing an antiglioma response. These approaches successfully induce an antitumor immune response and prolong survival in patients with glioma without major side effects. There are several types of glioma, so to achieve effective therapy, it might be necessary to evaluate the molecular genetic abnormalities in individual patient tumors and design novel immunotherapeutic strategies based on the pharmacogenomic findings. Here, we review recent advances in DC- and peptide-based immunotherapy approaches for patients with gliomas.