Levosimendan infusion improves haemodynamics in elderly heart failure patients undergoing urgent hip fracture repair

Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2008 Aug;25(8):627-33. doi: 10.1017/S0265021508004080. Epub 2008 Apr 11.

Abstract

Background: Elderly patients with heart failure undergoing urgent major surgery suffer substantial cardiac morbidity and mortality. Levosimendan, a novel calcium sensitizer, enhances myocardial contractility while simultaneously having vasodilatory and cardioprotective properties. This could be advantageous in perioperative management of heart failure patients.

Methods: Ten consecutive patients with symptomatic heart failure and left ventricular ejection fraction <35% undergoing urgent hip fracture repair were studied. Levosimendan was administered with an infusion rate of 0.1 microg kg(-1) min(-1) in a total dose of 12.5 mg starting a minimum of 2 h prior to surgery. Haemodynamic parameters were obtained at baseline and at 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 36 and 48 h after start of levosimendan. B-type natriuretic peptide was measured on admission and after 48 h.

Results: Patients were 86 +/- 7 yr (mean +/- SD) of age. Levosimendan significantly increased cardiac index from 2.4 +/- 0.3 L min(-1) m(-2) at baseline to 3.2 +/- 0.6 L min(-1) m(-2) after 24 h by increases in stroke volume index (baseline 27 +/- 5 mL m(-2), after 24 h 37 +/- 10 mL m(-2), P < 0.05). Systemic vascular resistance index significantly decreased from 2718 +/- 841 to 1964 +/- 385 dyn s cm-5 m(-2) within 24 h. Haemodynamic changes exerted by levosimendan persisted up to 48 h. B-type natriuretic peptide plasma concentrations decreased from 1143 +/- 792 to 935 +/- 724 ng L(-1) after 48 h (P = 0.006).

Conclusion: In patients with heart failure, preoperative start of levosimendan infusion improves intraoperative and postoperative haemodynamics. These findings suggest that levosimendan is a useful drug for preoperative optimization of cardiac function in high-risk patients undergoing major surgery.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Cardiac Output, Low / drug therapy
  • Cardiotonic Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Emergencies
  • Female
  • Heart Failure / drug therapy*
  • Hemodynamics / drug effects*
  • Hip Fractures / complications
  • Hip Fractures / mortality
  • Hip Fractures / surgery*
  • Humans
  • Hydrazones / therapeutic use*
  • Infusions, Intravenous
  • Male
  • Natriuretic Peptides / blood
  • Patient Selection
  • Preoperative Care / methods
  • Pyridazines / therapeutic use*
  • Simendan
  • Survival Rate
  • Time Factors
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Troponin / blood

Substances

  • Cardiotonic Agents
  • Hydrazones
  • Natriuretic Peptides
  • Pyridazines
  • Troponin
  • Simendan