The role of users in innovation in the pharmaceutical industry

Drug Discov Today. 2008 Apr;13(7-8):353-9. doi: 10.1016/j.drudis.2007.12.006. Epub 2008 Feb 14.


Traditionally, innovation in the pharmaceutical industry is organised according to the linear model. Over the past two decades this model lost its meaning as a result of rising costs, increased competition, new scientific developments and better-informed, more demanding users. The linear model is not well equipped to involve these new actors and to include their feedback. Starting from a systemic approach, the involvement of actors in pharmaceutical innovation processes, more in particular users, is put central. It is discussed and illustrated with three cases why a systemic model may be more effective to cope with present developments and why users should be involved. To wind up, conclusions are drawn regarding the implications of a systemic approach for policymakers, researchers and firms.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Community Participation*
  • Drug Industry / organization & administration*
  • Health Policy
  • Humans
  • Organizational Innovation