Recognition of nucleic acid and nucleic acid analogs by Toll-like receptors 7, 8 and 9

Immunobiology. 2008;213(3-4):315-28. doi: 10.1016/j.imbio.2007.10.010. Epub 2007 Nov 28.

Abstract

The mammalian immune system senses pathogens through pattern recognition receptors (PRR) and responds with activation. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) that are expressed on immune and non-immune cells play a critical role in this process. As part of the innate immune response, TLRs lead to cellular activation and cytokine production with subsequent initiation of an adaptive immune response. TLR7-9 recognize single-stranded RNA, nucleoside analogs and single-stranded CpG-DNA, respectively, and their activation initiates the immune response against viruses and bacteria. Furthermore, the stimulation of these TLRs may be exploited for adjuvant therapy, vaccination and anti-tumor responses. However, a role in the generation or perpetuation of autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has also been suggested.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • CpG Islands
  • DNA, Single-Stranded / chemistry
  • Humans
  • Interleukin-6 / biosynthesis
  • Mice
  • Models, Biological
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Nucleic Acids / metabolism*
  • RNA / chemistry
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
  • Toll-Like Receptor 7 / chemistry
  • Toll-Like Receptor 7 / metabolism*
  • Toll-Like Receptor 8 / chemistry
  • Toll-Like Receptor 8 / metabolism*
  • Toll-Like Receptor 9 / chemistry
  • Toll-Like Receptor 9 / metabolism*

Substances

  • DNA, Single-Stranded
  • Interleukin-6
  • Nucleic Acids
  • TLR7 protein, human
  • Toll-Like Receptor 7
  • Toll-Like Receptor 8
  • Toll-Like Receptor 9
  • RNA