Racial and ethnic disparities in smoking-cessation interventions: analysis of the 2005 National Health Interview Survey

Am J Prev Med. 2008 May;34(5):404-12. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2008.02.003.


Background: Recent national surveys document racial and ethnic disparities in receipt of smoking-cessation advice. This study updates and expands prior analyses using survey data for 2005, and evaluates the association between smokers' race and ethnicity and three separate measures of healthcare-encounter-based tobacco interventions: screening, smoking-cessation advice, and use of smoking-cessation aids.

Methods: Analyses are based on 4756 smokers (aged 18 and older) reporting a healthcare encounter within the past year who participated in the 2005 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Multivariate-adjusted OR and 95% CI for receipt of tobacco interventions in non-Hispanic black and Hispanic smokers were compared to those of non-Hispanic white smokers, adjusted for smokers' characteristics (sociodemographics, health status, and healthcare-utilization factors, and smoking-related characteristics). Analyses were done in 2006.

Results: Results show that compared to white smokers, black and Hispanic smokers had significantly lower odds of (1) being asked about tobacco use (AOR=0.70 and AOR=0.69, respectively); (2) being advised to quit (AOR=0.72 and AOR=0.64, respectively); or (3) having used tobacco-cessation aids during the past year in a quit attempt (AOR=0.60 and AOR=0.59, respectively). Compared to 2000 NHIS published data, the prevalence of receipt of advice to quit from a healthcare provider increased from 52.9% in 2000 to 61.2% in 2005, with increases across racial and ethnic groups.

Conclusions: Despite progress in smokers' being advised to quit during healthcare encounters in the past 5 years, black and Hispanic smokers continue to be less likely than whites to receive and use tobacco-cessation interventions, even after control for socioeconomic and healthcare factors. Further actions are needed to understand and eliminate this disparity.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Counseling
  • Female
  • Health Services Accessibility
  • Health Surveys*
  • Healthcare Disparities*
  • Humans
  • Interviews as Topic
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Racial Groups*
  • Smoking Cessation / ethnology*
  • United States