Purpose of review: To present the background of liver fluke-associated cholangiocarcinoma in Thailand focusing on recent epidemiological data and pathogenesis of this bile duct cancer.
Recent findings: More systematic tumor registration in Thailand nowadays uncovers new high-incidence areas that are confined to not only the northeastern part but also some provinces in northern Thailand. The link between the liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, and cholangiocarcinoma, particularly in terms of cellular and molecular pathogenesis, is further elucidated.
Summary: Thailand is still the country with the highest incidence of cholangiocarcinoma in the world. Liver fluke induces chronic inflammation leading to oxidative DNA damage of the infected biliary epithelium and malignant transformation. Eradication of the fluke and identification of high-risk populations are urgently needed.