[Early detection of prostate cancer in Germany. A study of a representative random sample of the population]

Urologe A. 2008 Sep;47(9):1233-8. doi: 10.1007/s00120-008-1695-4.
[Article in German]


The goals of our study were to assess the prevalence of prostate cancer screening (PCS) among German men in terms of regularity of use and to analyze predictors of PCS use. A representative sample of 10,659 men aged 45-70 (mean=55.2) were surveyed to self-assess regularity of DRE and PSA tests; sociodemographic variables (age, income, education, marital status and health insurance status), family history of cancer, physician recommendation and medical checkups were assessed as well.Two thirds of the sample report ever undergoing a DRE; 48% had ever had a PSA test. In contrast, the rates of men who undergo PCS regularly are lower (44% DRE, 33% PSA). PCS increases with age; socioeconomic variables (such as education or income), however, are less important predictors. Family history of cancer is associated with PCS use, but not with regularity of use. The most important predictors are having medical checkups and physician recommendation.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Early Diagnosis
  • Endosonography
  • Germany
  • Health Services Accessibility / statistics & numerical data
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mass Screening / statistics & numerical data*
  • Middle Aged
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Utilization Review / statistics & numerical data


  • Prostate-Specific Antigen