Sodium and bone health: impact of moderately high and low salt intakes on calcium metabolism in postmenopausal women

J Bone Miner Res. 2008 Sep;23(9):1477-85. doi: 10.1359/jbmr.080408.


High salt intake is a well-recognized risk factor for osteoporosis because it induces calciuria, but the effects of salt on calcium metabolism and the potential impact on bone health in postmenopausal women have not been fully characterized. This study investigated adaptive mechanisms in response to changes in salt and calcium intake in postmenopausal women. Eleven women completed a randomized cross-over trial consisting of four successive 5-wk periods of controlled dietary intervention, each separated by a minimum 4-wk washout. Moderately low and high calcium (518 versus 1284 mg) and salt (3.9 versus 11.2 g) diets, reflecting lower and upper intakes in postmenopausal women consuming a Western-style diet, were provided. Stable isotope labeling techniques were used to measure calcium absorption and excretion, compartmental modeling was undertaken to estimate bone calcium balance, and biomarkers of bone formation and resorption were measured in blood and urine. Moderately high salt intake (11.2 g/d) elicited a significant increase in urinary calcium excretion (p = 0.0008) and significantly affected bone calcium balance with the high calcium diet (p = 0.024). Efficiency of calcium absorption was higher after a period of moderately low calcium intake (p < 0.05) but was unaffected by salt intake. Salt was responsible for a significant change in bone calcium balance, from positive to negative, when consumed as part of a high calcium diet, but with a low calcium intake, the bone calcium balance was negative on both high and low salt diets.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Biomarkers / metabolism
  • Bone Resorption / metabolism
  • Bone Resorption / urine
  • Bone and Bones / drug effects
  • Bone and Bones / metabolism*
  • Calcium / metabolism*
  • Calcium / urine
  • Calcium, Dietary / pharmacology
  • Diet
  • Diet, Sodium-Restricted
  • Feeding Behavior / drug effects*
  • Female
  • Health*
  • Hormones / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Intestinal Absorption / drug effects
  • Kinetics
  • Middle Aged
  • Models, Biological
  • Osteogenesis / drug effects
  • Phosphorus / urine
  • Postmenopause / drug effects*
  • Postmenopause / urine
  • Potassium / urine
  • Sodium / metabolism*
  • Sodium / urine
  • Sodium Chloride, Dietary / pharmacology*


  • Biomarkers
  • Calcium, Dietary
  • Hormones
  • Sodium Chloride, Dietary
  • Phosphorus
  • Sodium
  • Potassium
  • Calcium