Vitamin D receptor polymorphism (-1056 Taq-I) interacts with smoking for the presence and progression of periodontitis

J Clin Periodontol. 2008 Jul;35(7):561-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-051X.2008.01233.x. Epub 2008 Apr 10.


Aim: The aim of this analysis was to investigate the relationship between a vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphism and the diagnosis and progression of periodontitis.

Material and methods: Data were derived from two different studies, including 231 subjects with healthy periodontium, 224 aggressive periodontitis and 79 chronic periodontitis (CP) patients in a case-control investigation. Sixty-one of these CP patients also took part in an observational study with a 1-year follow-up, in which progression of periodontitis was determined at the subject level. All 534 subjects provided a blood sample from which genomic DNA was extracted to study VDR -1056 TaqI polymorphism.

Results: The interaction between smoking and VDR polymorphism was associated with the diagnosis of periodontitis in Caucasians [p=0.001, odds ratio (OR)=1.33, 95% confidence intervals (CI)=1.12-1.57] and all subjects (p=0.033, OR=1.60, 95% CI=1.04-2.48). In the longitudinal study, subjects were divided into two clusters at 1 year according to the median number of progressing sites (Delta cumulative attachment loss >2 mm). Logistic regression analysis revealed that the interaction between VDR Taq-I polymorphism and smoking showed limited evidence of association with the "severe progression" cluster (p=0.033, OR=15.24, 95% CI=1.24-187.42).

Conclusions: Vitamin D receptor Taq-I TT polymorphism was moderately associated with both the presence and the progression of periodontitis in smokers, while no association was detected in non-smoking individuals. VDR genetic factors may interact with smoking in the pathogenesis of periodontitis.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Chronic Disease
  • Disease Progression
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Genetic Linkage
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Periodontal Index
  • Periodontitis / genetics*
  • Polymorphism, Genetic
  • Receptors, Calcitriol / genetics*
  • Reference Values
  • Regression Analysis
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Smoking / adverse effects
  • Smoking / genetics*
  • Smoking / physiopathology


  • Receptors, Calcitriol