Limbic Encephalitis - A Review

J Clin Neurosci. 2008 Sep;15(9):961-71. doi: 10.1016/j.jocn.2007.12.003. Epub 2008 Apr 14.

Abstract

The clinical features of limbic encephalitis are diverse and early diagnosis of the disorder is frequently difficult. Four patients with limbic encephalitis are described. An antineuronal antibody was identified in three of these patients. Antibodies directed against voltage-gated potassium channels, the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor and an unidentified neuropil antigen were each found in one patient. The fourth patient had multifocal paraneoplastic encephalitis associated with small cell lung cancer. The clinical and imaging findings associated with these antibodies and the other antineuronal antibodies described in patients with limbic encephalitis are reviewed. An approach to the diagnosis and management of limbic encephalitis is presented.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Amnesia, Anterograde / immunology
  • Amnesia, Anterograde / pathology
  • Amnesia, Anterograde / physiopathology
  • Autoantibodies / blood*
  • Biomarkers / analysis
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Fatal Outcome
  • Humans
  • Limbic Encephalitis / diagnosis*
  • Limbic Encephalitis / immunology*
  • Limbic Encephalitis / physiopathology
  • Limbic System / immunology*
  • Limbic System / pathology
  • Limbic System / physiopathology
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasms / complications
  • Neoplasms / immunology*
  • Potassium Channels, Voltage-Gated / immunology
  • Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate / immunology

Substances

  • Autoantibodies
  • Biomarkers
  • Potassium Channels, Voltage-Gated
  • Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate