Cost-effectiveness analysis of adding a quadrivalent HPV vaccine to the cervical cancer screening programme in Switzerland

Curr Med Res Opin. 2008 May;24(5):1473-83. doi: 10.1185/030079908x297826. Epub 2008 Apr 14.


Objective: Based on positive safety and efficacy data, a quadrivalent Human PapillomaVirus (HPV) vaccine has been approved in Switzerland to prevent HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18 infections. The objective of this study was to explore the cost-effectiveness of an HPV vaccination in Switzerland.

Design and methods: A Markov model of the natural history of HPV infection was adapted to the Swiss context and followed a hypothetical cohort of 41,200 girls aged 11 years over their lifetime. Main epidemiological and economic parameters were extracted from the literature. Two strategies were compared: conventional cytological screening only and HPV vaccination followed by conventional cytological screening. A coverage rate of 80% was used and the vaccine was assumed to provide a lifelong protection. Analyses were performed from the direct health care cost perspective including only direct medical costs.

Results: Compared to screening only, adding a quadrivalent HPV vaccine could prevent over lifetime 62% of cervical cancers and related deaths, 19% of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN 1), 43% of CIN 2, 45% of CIN 3 and 66% of genital warts per cohort. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) were estimated to be CHF 45,008 per Life Year Gained (LYG) and CHF 26,005 per Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY) gained. Sensitivity analyses demonstrated that the ICER was robust to all parameters, but was most sensitive to the need for a booster and discount rates.

Conclusions: Compared to commonly accepted standard thresholds in Europe and other vaccination strategies implemented in Switzerland, adding a quadrivalent HPV vaccine alongside the current cervical cancer screening programme is likely to be cost-effective in Switzerland.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Child
  • Cost-Benefit Analysis
  • Evaluation Studies as Topic
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Markov Chains
  • Mass Screening / economics*
  • Mass Screening / methods
  • Mass Vaccination / economics*
  • Mass Vaccination / methods
  • Middle Aged
  • Papillomavirus Infections / economics
  • Papillomavirus Infections / prevention & control*
  • Papillomavirus Vaccines / administration & dosage
  • Papillomavirus Vaccines / classification
  • Papillomavirus Vaccines / economics*
  • Quality-Adjusted Life Years
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Switzerland
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / economics
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / prevention & control*
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology


  • Papillomavirus Vaccines