Evaluation of in vivo cerebral metabolism on proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in patients with impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus

J Diabetes Complications. Jul-Aug 2008;22(4):254-60. doi: 10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2007.03.007. Epub 2008 Apr 16.

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate possible metabolic alterations in cerebral tissues on magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2-DM). Twenty-five patients with T2-DM, 13 patients with IGT, and 14 healthy volunteers were included. Single-voxel spectroscopy (TR: 2000 ms, TE: 31 ms) was performed in all subjects. Voxels were placed in the frontal cortex, thalamus, and parietal white matter. N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/creatine (Cr), choline (Cho)/Cr, and myo-inositol (MI)/Cr ratios were calculated. Frontal cortical Cho/Cr ratios were increased in patients with IGT compared to control subjects. Parietal white matter Cho/Cr ratios were significantly higher in patients with IGT when compared to patients with T2-DM. In the diabetic group, frontal cortical MI/Cr ratios were increased, and parietal white matter Cho/Cr ratios were decreased when compared to the control group. Frontal cortical NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr ratios and parietal white matter Cho/Cr ratios were decreased in diabetic patients with poor glycemic control (A1C>10%). A1C levels were inversely correlated with frontal cortical NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr ratios and with parietal white matter Cho/Cr ratios. T2-DM and IGT may cause subtle cerebral metabolic changes, and these changes may be shown with MRS. Increased Cho/Cr ratios may suggest dynamic change in membrane turnover in patients with IGT. Diabetic patients with poor glycemic control may be associated with neuronal dysfunction/damage in brain in accordance with A1C levels and, in some, extend with insulin resistance.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aspartic Acid / analogs & derivatives
  • Aspartic Acid / metabolism
  • Cerebral Cortex / metabolism*
  • Choline / metabolism
  • Creatine / metabolism
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / metabolism*
  • Female
  • Glucose Intolerance / metabolism*
  • Glucose Tolerance Test
  • Humans
  • Inositol / metabolism
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Male
  • Middle Aged

Substances

  • Aspartic Acid
  • Inositol
  • N-acetylaspartate
  • Creatine
  • Choline