Prevalence and types of sleep disturbances acutely after traumatic brain injury

Brain Inj. 2008 May;22(5):381-6. doi: 10.1080/02699050801935260.


Primary objective: To assess the prevalence of and risk factors for sleep disturbances in the acute post-traumatic brain injury (TBI) period.

Research design: Longitudinal, observational study.

Methods and procedures: Fifty-four first time closed-head injury patients were recruited and evaluated within 3 months after injury. Pre-injury and post-injury sleep disturbances were compared on the Medical Outcome Scale for Sleep. The subjects were also assessed on anxiety, depression, medical comorbidity and severity of TBI.

Main outcomes and results: Subjects were worse on most sleep measures after TBI compared to before TBI. Anxiety disorder secondary to TBI was the most consistent significant risk factor to be associated with worsening sleep status.

Conclusions: Anxiety is associated with sleep disturbances after TBI. Further studies need to be done to evaluate if this is a causal relationship.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Anxiety / complications
  • Brain Injuries / complications*
  • Depression / complications
  • Female
  • Glasgow Outcome Scale
  • Headache / complications
  • Humans
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence
  • Regression Analysis
  • Sleep Apnea Syndromes / complications
  • Sleep Wake Disorders / complications*
  • Sleep Wake Disorders / epidemiology
  • Snoring / complications