Aim: To assess the clinical and radiographic outcomes of immediate transmucosal placement of implants into molar extraction sockets.
Study design: Twelve-month multicenter prospective cohort study.
Material and methods: Following molar extraction, tapered implants with an endosseous diameter of 4.8 mm and a shoulder diameter of 6.5 mm were immediately placed into the sockets. Molars with evidence of acute periapical pathology were excluded. After implant placement and achievement of primary stability, flaps were repositioned and sutured allowing a non-submerged, transmucosal healing. Peri-implant marginal defects were treated according to the principles of guided bone regeneration (GBR) by means of deproteinized bovine bone mineral particles in conjunction with a bioresrobable collagen membrane. Standardized radiographs were obtained at baseline and 12 months thereafter. Changes in depth and width of the distance from the implant shoulder (IS) and from the alveolar crest (AC) to the bottom of the defect (BD) were assessed.
Results: Eighty-two patients (42 males and 40 females) were enrolled and followed for 12 months. They contributed with 82 tapered implants. Extraction sites displayed sufficient residual bone volume to allow primary stability of all implants. Sixty-four percent of the implants were placed in the areas of 36 and 46. GBR was used in conjunction with the placement of all implants. No post-surgical complications were observed. All implants healed uneventfully yielding a survival rate of 100% and healthy soft tissue conditions after 12 months. Radiographically, statistically significant changes (P<0.0001) in mesial and distal crestal bone levels were observed from baseline to the 12-month follow-up.
Conclusions: The findings of this 12-month prospective cohort study showed that immediate transmucosal implant placement represented a predictable treatment option for the replacement of mandibular and maxillary molars lost due to reasons other than periodontitis including vertical root fractures, endodontic failures and caries.