Daytime functioning in older patients suffering from chronic insomnia: treatment outcome in a randomized controlled trial comparing CBT with Zopiclone

Behav Res Ther. 2008 May;46(5):623-41. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2008.02.013.


The paper presents data from a randomized controlled trial comparing treatment effects of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), hypnotic treatment (Zopiclone), and placebo in a sample of insomnia patients. Data from the same trial have already demonstrated that CBT was more efficient in improving sleep than Zopiclone. The novel outcomes that are reported here concern daytime functioning. Forty-six older patients (age >or= 55) qualifying for a diagnosis of primary insomnia were recruited to participate. Assessments were completed at baseline, post-treatment, and at a 6-months follow-up, and measures of worry, anxiety, depression, interpersonal relationships, subjective alertness, vigilance, and quality of life were used. The participants in both treatment conditions scored within the normal range on the outcome measures at baseline with the exception of reporting less alertness, relative to a group of good sleepers. One interaction effect indicated that subjective alertness improved more in the Zopiclone group than the CBT group from baseline to post-treatment, and another that CBT was more effective than Zopiclone in reducing trait anxiety from baseline to follow-up. It was concluded that the treatments yielded only minor effects on the measures of daytime functioning, and that none of them was clearly superior to the other.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Azabicyclo Compounds / therapeutic use*
  • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypnotics and Sedatives / therapeutic use*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Piperazines / therapeutic use*
  • Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
  • Quality of Life
  • Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders / therapy*
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Azabicyclo Compounds
  • Hypnotics and Sedatives
  • Piperazines
  • zopiclone