Patient tolerance during cystoscopy: a randomized study comparing lidocaine hydrochloride gel and dimethyl sulfoxide with lidocaine

J Endourol. 2008 May;22(5):1027-9. doi: 10.1089/end.2007.0180.


Purpose: Cystoscopy is one of the most common examinations in urologic outpatient clinics. Various anesthetic approaches have been used to make cystoscopy more tolerable for patients. The aim of the present prospective randomized study was to evaluate the efficacy of lidocaine hydrochloride gel compared to dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) with lidocaine in rigid cystoscopy.

Materials and methods: Male patients requiring 17F rigid cystoscopy were eligible for inclusion in this study. A total of 140 patients were divided into two groups: group 1 (n=70) received approximately 11 mL of 2% lidocaine gel intraurethrally, while in group 2 (n=70) approximately 10 mL of 40% DMSO with an amount of lidocaine equal to that in the lidocaine gel was smeared around the scope and external urethral meatus. A penile clamp was placed for 15 minutes and 5 minutes in group 1 and group 2, respectively. Immediately after cystoscopic examination pain was scored on a 10-cm visual analog scale.

Results: The mean pain scores after the procedure for group 1 and group 2 were 3.9+/-1.1 and 2.1+/-1.0, respectively. The pain scores were significantly lower for group 2 than for group 1 (P=0.015). No patients needed additional anesthetic agents or sedatives due to insufficient analgesia, and there were no serious side effects in either group.

Conclusions: Our study has shown that DMSO with lidocaine gel causes significantly less delivery discomfort in the male urethra than lidocaine hydrochloride gel. The advantages of DMSO with lidocaine are the mixture takes less time to act and had lower pain scores.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Ambulatory Care
  • Anesthetics, Local / therapeutic use*
  • Cystoscopy*
  • Dimethyl Sulfoxide / therapeutic use*
  • Drug Combinations
  • Gels
  • Humans
  • Lidocaine / therapeutic use*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Pain / drug therapy*
  • Pain Measurement
  • Prospective Studies


  • Anesthetics, Local
  • Drug Combinations
  • Gels
  • Lidocaine
  • Dimethyl Sulfoxide