Direct reprogramming of terminally differentiated mature B lymphocytes to pluripotency

Cell. 2008 Apr 18;133(2):250-64. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2008.03.028.

Abstract

Pluripotent cells can be derived from fibroblasts by ectopic expression of defined transcription factors. A fundamental unresolved question is whether terminally differentiated cells can be reprogrammed to pluripotency. We utilized transgenic and inducible expression of four transcription factors (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc) to reprogram mouse B lymphocytes. These factors were sufficient to convert nonterminally differentiated B cells to a pluripotent state. However, reprogramming of mature B cells required additional interruption with the transcriptional state maintaining B cell identity by either ectopic expression of the myeloid transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding-protein-alpha (C/EBPalpha) or specific knockdown of the B cell transcription factor Pax5. Multiple iPS lines were clonally derived from both nonfully and fully differentiated B lymphocytes, which gave rise to adult chimeras with germline contribution, and to late-term embryos when injected into tetraploid blastocysts. Our study provides definite proof for the direct nuclear reprogramming of terminally differentiated adult cells to pluripotency.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • B-Lymphocytes / cytology*
  • Cell Differentiation*
  • Cell Nucleus / genetics
  • Embryonic Stem Cells / cytology
  • Humans
  • Mice
  • Pluripotent Stem Cells / cytology*
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism

Substances

  • Transcription Factors