Objective: To evaluate serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in well-characterized men with normal and reduced sperm concentration and in men with a history of or persistent maldescended testes as a possible clinical marker of male factor infertility and/or maldescended testes.
Design: Retrospective analysis of 199 men selected from our database (Androbase).
Setting: The university-based Institute of Reproductive Medicine.
Patient(s): One hundred eight men with normal and 60 men with reduced sperm concentration without known cause of infertility and additionally 31 infertile men with current or former maldescended testes were evaluated.
Intervention(s): Serum AMH was analyzed by an in-house ELISA.
Main outcome measure(s): Hormone and semen parameters were compared and correlated with AMH.
Result(s): No significant differences were found in AMH levels. Only in men with maldescended testes did AMH correlate negatively with FSH and positively with testicular volume and sperm concentration. No correlations between AMH and LH or testosterone (T) were found.
Conclusion(s): Anti-Müllerian hormone serum levels are not significantly affected by impaired spermatogenesis in general but are correlated with spermatogenic parameters in men with current or former maldescended testes. Therefore, AMH measurement does not improve clinical routine diagnostics but should be evaluated further in patients with maldescended testes. Anti-Müllerian hormone might serve as a marker of Sertoli cell number, function, and/or maturation in these men.