In US men, the incidence of anal cancer, the primary cause of which is human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, has increased almost 3-fold in 3 decades; however, little is known about the epidemiology of anal HPV infection, especially in heterosexual men. In 2 US cities, behavioral data and anal biological specimens were collected from 253 men who acknowledged having engaged in sexual intercourse with a woman during the preceding year. On the basis of DNA analysis, overall prevalence of anal HPV infection was found to be 24.8% in 222 men who acknowledged having had no prior sexual intercourse with men. Of the men with anal HPV infection, 33.3% had an oncogenic HPV type. Risk factors independently associated with anal HPV were lifetime number of female sex partners and frequency of sex with females during the preceding month. These results suggest that anal HPV infection may be common in heterosexual men.