Objective: A recent meta-analysis demonstrated a nominal association of the ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase phosphodiesterase 1 (ENPP1) K-->Q missense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at position 121 with type 2 diabetes. We set out to confirm the association of ENPP1 K121Q with hyperglycemia, expand this association to insulin resistance traits, and determine whether the association stems from K121Q or another variant in linkage disequilibrium with it.
Research design and methods: We characterized the haplotype structure of ENPP1 and selected 39 tag SNPs that captured 96% of common variation in the region (minor allele frequency > or =5%) with an r(2) value > or =0.80. We genotyped the SNPs in 2,511 Framingham Heart Study participants and used age- and sex-adjusted linear mixed effects (LME) models to test for association with quantitative metabolic traits. We also examined whether interaction between K121Q and BMI affected glycemic trait levels.
Results: The Q allele of K121Q (rs1044498) was associated with increased fasting plasma glucose (FPG), A1C, fasting insulin, and insulin resistance by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR; all P = 0.01-0.006). Two noncoding SNPs (rs7775386 and rs7773477) demonstrated similar associations, but LME models indicated that their effects were not independent from K121Q. We found no association of K121Q with obesity, but interaction models suggested that the effect of the Q allele on FPG and HOMA-IR was stronger in those with a higher BMI (P = 0.008 and 0.01 for interaction, respectively).
Conclusions: The Q allele of ENPP1 K121Q is associated with hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in whites. We found an adiposity-SNP interaction, with a stronger association of K121Q with diabetes-related quantitative traits in people with a higher BMI.