Nicotinic acid, nicotinamide, and nicotinamide riboside: a molecular evaluation of NAD+ precursor vitamins in human nutrition

Annu Rev Nutr. 2008;28:115-30. doi: 10.1146/annurev.nutr.28.061807.155443.

Abstract

Although baseline requirements for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) synthesis can be met either with dietary tryptophan or with less than 20 mg of daily niacin, which consists of nicotinic acid and/or nicotinamide, there is growing evidence that substantially greater rates of NAD+ synthesis may be beneficial to protect against neurological degeneration, Candida glabrata infection, and possibly to enhance reverse cholesterol transport. The distinct and tissue-specific biosynthetic and/or ligand activities of tryptophan, nicotinic acid, nicotinamide, and the newly identified NAD+ precursor, nicotinamide riboside, reviewed herein, are responsible for vitamin-specific effects and side effects. Because current data suggest that nicotinamide riboside may be the only vitamin precursor that supports neuronal NAD+ synthesis, we present prospects for human nicotinamide riboside supplementation and propose areas for future research.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Caloric Restriction
  • Candida glabrata / metabolism
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Dyslipidemias / blood
  • Dyslipidemias / drug therapy*
  • Humans
  • NAD / biosynthesis
  • NAD / metabolism*
  • Niacin / metabolism*
  • Niacinamide / analogs & derivatives*
  • Niacinamide / metabolism*
  • Nutritional Requirements

Substances

  • nicotinamide-beta-riboside
  • NAD
  • Niacinamide
  • Niacin