Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations play substantial roles in genesis and proliferation of non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). We recently found that reproductive factors have a substantial impact on risk of development of NSCLCs featuring such EGFR mutations. Therefore, we explored the influence of dietary habits on NSCLC risk with reference to the EGFR mutational status. We conducted a case-control study using 353 patients with NSCLCs (122 EGFR mutated and 231 EGFR wild-type) and 1765 age-sex matched non-cancer control subjects. Dietary exposure was based on a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire and impact of major food items, like meats, seafoods, vegetables and soybean products was assessed by multivariate logistic regression. Soybean products demonstrated a protective association with EGFR mutated, but not EGFR wild-type NSCLCs, with multivariate-adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the 2nd and 3rd tertile of soybean product consumption of 0.79 (0.50-1.27) and 0.56 (0.34-0.93) relative to those in the lowest tertile (trend P = 0.023). In conclusion, soy consumption may exert a protective association against the development of NSCLCs with EGFR mutations, providing possible insights into mechanisms of their genesis.