Background: Metabolic syndrome affects approximately 25% of the American population. Components of metabolic syndrome, such as obesity, hypertension, and diabetes, were associated with kidney stone disease, but no published large-scale study examined the association between metabolic syndrome and history of kidney stones.
Study design: Cross-sectional analysis. The American Heart Association and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute statement on metabolic syndrome was used to define metabolic syndrome.
Setting & participants: A national probability sample of the US population National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey aged 20 years and older.
Predictor: Metabolic syndrome as defined by the American Heart Association and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
Outcomes & measurements: Self-reported history of kidney stones.
Results: Of all adults older than 20 years, 4.7% reported a history of kidney stones. The prevalence of self-reported history of kidney stones increased with the number of metabolic syndrome traits from 3% with 0 traits to 7.5% with 3 traits to 9.8% with 5 traits. After adjustment for age and other covariates, the presence of 2 or more traits significantly increased the odds of self-reported kidney stone disease. The presence of 4 or more traits was associated with an approximate 2-fold increase in odds of self-reported kidney stone disease.
Limitations: Cross-sectional design, absence of dietary data.
Conclusion: Metabolic syndrome traits are associated with a self-reported history of kidney stones. This association should be verified in prospective studies.