The aim of our work was to develop an assay for the determination of angiopoietin-like protein 4 (Angplt4) in human blood, and to investigate its levels in healthy volunteers and donors suffer from metabolic syndrome. We developed and evaluated the sandwich ELISA method for the quantitative determination of human Angplt4 in serum samples. We conducted also the pilot study on individuals with metabolic syndrome or familiar hypercholesterolemia and healthy probands and measured blood pressure, waist circumference, Angplt4 serum levels, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, insulin, glucose, A-FABP and calculate BMI and QUICKI insulin sensitivity index. In the study on 30 healthy volunteers we demonstrated that sex or age is not the determinant for Angplt4 serum values. Furthermore, we tested 115 individuals with metabolic syndrome and found that probands with metabolic syndrome did not differ in Angplt4 values than healthy individuals from the first study (medians 8.7 vs. 8.1 ng/ml, p = 0.6). Individuals with metabolic syndrome did not differ in sex or age from healthy. Angplt4 values correlated with the HDL-cholesterol (r = -0.25; p < 0.01), FGF-21 (r = 0.23, p < 0.01), glucose (r = 0.17; p = 0.03), uric acid (r = 0.17; p = 0.49), lipocalin-2 (r = 0.23, p < 0.01), triacylglycerols (r = 0.25; p < 0.01) and number or characters of metabolic syndrome (r = 0.21; p < 0.01). No significant correlation was found between serum Angplt4 and BMI, WC or QUICKI. However, we performed stepwise regression and we found that Angplt4 was not an independent marker for metabolic syndrome. The patients from the metabolic syndrome group suffering diabetes mellitus (n = 83) did not differ in serum Angplt4 from the group of healthy patients, too. The pilot study supports the hypothesis about the role of Angplt4 as a new class of lipid metabolism modulator. Their values could be a new key predictors of metabolic syndrome. Further research is necessary to confirm our findings in individuals with dyslipidemia, obesity, coronary artery diseases and different medication in order to assess Angplt4 value as a risk predictor of accelerated atherosclerosis.