Ras and its GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) are among the crucial regulators of extracelluar ligands. Information about these regulators has been elucidated during the course of studies in signal transduction over the last two decades. RasGAPs such as p120GAP and neurofibromin have been studied extensively for their roles as either "negative" regulators or effectors of Ras. Accumulating evidence suggests that these molecules are crucial regulators of extracellular stimuli that serve to maintain the homeostasis of cellular functions. This compendium highlights cellular functions of RasGAPs and their signaling characteristics from the viewpoint of homeostasis, including our recent finding of the phenotype of R-RasGAP mutant mice whose GAP activity is down-regulated.