Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of treatment with the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist anakinra in patients with tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) requiring high cumulative doses of steroids.
Methods: Four children (mean age 9.1 years [range 4-13 years]) and 1 adult (age 33 years) with TRAPS were enrolled in the study. The 3 children with cysteine mutations (C52Y, C55Y, C43R) had prolonged and frequent attacks of fever. One child with the R92Q mutation and the adult patient with the C43R mutation displayed a more chronic disease course, with fluctuating, nearly continuous symptoms and persistent elevation of acute-phase reactant levels (including serum amyloid A [SAA]). All patients were treated with anakinra (1.5 mg/kg/day).
Results: All of the patients had a prompt response to anakinra, with disappearance of symptoms and normalization of acute-phase reactant levels, including SAA. In all pediatric patients, anakinra was withdrawn after 15 days of treatment. After a few days (mean 5.6 days [range 3-8]) a disease relapse occurred, which dramatically responded to reintroduction of anakinra. During the following period of observation (mean 11.4 months [range 4-20 months]), the patients did not experience episodes of fever or other disease-related clinical manifestations. Levels of acute-phase reactants remained in the normal range. No major adverse reactions or severe infections were observed.
Conclusion: Continuous treatment with anakinra effectively controlled both the clinical and laboratory manifestations in patients with TRAPS and prevented disease relapses.