The botanical integrity of wheat products influences the gastric distention and satiety in healthy subjects

Nutr J. 2008 Apr 27;7:12. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-7-12.


Background: Maintenance of the botanical integrity of cereal kernels and the addition of acetic acid (as vinegar) in the product or meal has been shown to lower the postprandial blood glucose and insulin response and to increase satiety. However, the mechanism behind the benefits of acetic acid on blood glucose and satiety is not clear. We hypothesized that the gastric emptying rate could be involved. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the possible influence of maintained botanical integrity of cereals and the presence of acetic acid (vinegar) on gastric emptying rate (GER), postprandial blood glucose and satiety.

Methods: Fifteen healthy subjects were included in a blinded crossover trial, and thirteen of the subjects completed the study. Equicarbohydrate amounts of the following wheat-based meals were studied: white wheat bread, whole-kernel wheat bread or wholemeal wheat bread served with white wine vinegar. The results were compared with a reference meal consisting of white wheat bread without vinegar. The GER was measured with standardized real-time ultrasonography using normal fasting blood glucose <6.1 mmol/l or plasma glucose <7.0 mmol/l as an inclusion criterion. The GER was calculated as the percentage change in the antral cross-sectional area 15 and 90 minutes after ingestion of the various meals. Satiety scores were estimated and blood glucose was measured before and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after the start of the meal.

Results: The whole-kernel wheat bread with vinegar resulted in significantly higher (<0.05) satiety than the wholemeal wheat bread and white wheat bread with vinegar and the reference bread. Wheat fiber present in the wholemeal wheat bread, or the presence of wheat kernels per se, did not affect the postprandial blood glucose or GER significantly compared with white wheat bread, neither did the addition of vinegar to white bread affect these variables. There was no correlation found between the satiety with antral areas or GER CONCLUSION: The present study shows higher satiety after a whole-kernel wheat bread meal with vinegar. This may be explained by increased antral distension after ingestion of intact cereal kernels but, in this study, not by a lower gastric emptying rate or higher postprandial blood glucose response.

Trial registration: NTR1116.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Acetic Acid / pharmacology*
  • Adult
  • Area Under Curve
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism*
  • Bread
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Fasting / blood
  • Female
  • Gastric Emptying / drug effects*
  • Gastric Emptying / physiology
  • Humans
  • Insulin / blood
  • Male
  • Postprandial Period / drug effects
  • Postprandial Period / physiology
  • Satiety Response / drug effects*
  • Satiety Response / physiology
  • Triticum*


  • Blood Glucose
  • Insulin
  • Acetic Acid