Linkage to chromosome 1p36 for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder traits in school and home settings

Biol Psychiatry. 2008 Oct 1;64(7):571-6. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2008.02.024. Epub 2008 Apr 24.

Abstract

Background: Limited success has been achieved through previous attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) linkage scans, which were all designed to map genes underlying the dichotomous phenotype. The International Multi-centre ADHD Genetics (IMAGE) project performed a whole genome linkage scan specifically designed to map ADHD quantitative trait loci (QTL).

Methods: A set of 1094 single selected Caucasian ADHD nuclear families was genotyped on a highly accurate and informative single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panel. Two quantitative traits measuring the children's symptoms in home and school settings were collected and standardized according to a population sample of 8000 children to reflect the developmental nature and gender prevalence difference of ADHD. Univariate linkage test was performed on both traits and their mean score.

Results: A significant common linkage locus was found at chromosome 1p36 with a locus-specific heritability of 5.1% and a genomewide empirical p < .04. Setting-specific suggestive linkage signals were also found: logarithm of odds (LOD) = 2.2 at 9p23 for home trait and LOD = 2.6 at 11q21 for school trait.

Conclusions: These results indicate that given large samples with proper phenotypic measures, searching for ADHD genes with a QTL strategy is an important alternative to using the clinical diagnosis. The fact that our linkage region 1p36 overlaps with the dyslexia QTL DYX8 further suggests it is potentially a pleiotropic locus for ADHD and dyslexia.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / diagnosis
  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / epidemiology
  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / genetics*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1 / genetics*
  • Dyslexia / diagnosis
  • Dyslexia / epidemiology
  • Dyslexia / genetics
  • European Continental Ancestry Group / genetics
  • Female
  • Genetic Linkage / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Phenotype
  • Schools*
  • Social Environment*