Purpose: To identity anatomic risk factors involved in the onset of retinal complications causing decrease of visual acuity (VA) in the fellow eyes of highly myopic patients operated for retinal detachment with macular hole (RDMH).
Design: Cohort study.
Participants: Ninety-eight patients (mean age, 51.5+/-8.0 years) with bilateral high myopia (mean myopia of the fellow eye, 20.4+/-5.5 diopters) affected by RDMH in the other eye at baseline.
Methods: Evaluation of the anatomic features at baseline and during 84+/-2.7 months of follow-up by biomicroscopic examination, indirect binocular ophthalmoscopy, B-scan ultrasonography, and optical coherence tomography.
Main outcome measures: Detection of anatomic features associated with onset of retinal complications causing decrease of VA during the follow-up period.
Results: The fellow eyes were divided into 2 groups according to the clinical features of the RDMH eyes: Group 1, presence of posterior vitreous detachment (PVD); and Group 2, presence of posterior vitreous schisis (PVS). At baseline, the incidence of PVD in group 1 was 31 of 47 eyes (65.9%) and the incidence of PVS in Group 2 was 42 of 51 eyes (82.3%). At the end of follow-up, group 1 eyes had a lower incidence of retinal complications causing visual decrease than group 2 eyes (group 1, 2/47 eyes; group 2, 9/51 eyes).
Conclusions: Fellow eyes of RDMH cases with higher degree of myopia and peculiar vitreoretinal features including PVS, posterior epiretinal membrane, severe posterior staphyloma, and chorioretinal atrophy are more likely to develop retinal complications causing decrease of VA.