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. 2008 Mar;5(1):68-75.
doi: 10.3390/ijerph5020068.

The Value of the Freshwater Snail Dip Scoop Sampling Method in Macroinvertebrates Bioassessment of Sugar Mill Wastewater Pollution in Mbandjock, Cameroon

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Free PMC article

The Value of the Freshwater Snail Dip Scoop Sampling Method in Macroinvertebrates Bioassessment of Sugar Mill Wastewater Pollution in Mbandjock, Cameroon

Innocent Takougang et al. Int J Environ Res Public Health. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Macroinvertebrates identification and enumeration may be used as a simple and affordable alternative to chemical analysis in water pollution monitoring. However, the ecological responses of various taxa to pollution are poorly known in resources-limited tropical countries. While freshwater macroinvertebrates have been used in the assessment of water quality in Europe and the Americas, investigations in Africa have mainly focused on snail hosts of human parasites. There is a need for sampling methods that can be used to assess both snails and other macroinvertebrates. The present study was designed to evaluate the usefulness of the freshwater snail dip scoop method in the study of macroinvertebrates for the assessment of the SOSUCAM sugar mill effluents pollution. Standard snail dip scoop samples were collected upstream and downstream of the factory effluent inputs, on the Mokona and Mengoala rivers. The analysis of the macroinvertebrate communities revealed the absence of Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera, and the thriving of Syrphidae in the sections of the rivers under high effluent load. The Shannon & Weaver diversity index was lower in these areas. The dip scoop sampling protocol was found to be a useful method for macroinvertebrates collection. Hence, this method is recommended as a simple, cost-effective and efficient tool for the bio-assessment of freshwater pollution in developing countries with limited research resources.

Figures

Figure 1:
Figure 1:
Location of sampling points on Rivers Mokona (A1–A5) and Mengoala (B1–B3) in Mbangjock, Cameroun
Figure 2:
Figure 2:
Effects of a sugar mill effluent on the longitudinal distribution of macroinvertebrates in the Mokona (A1–A5) River in Mbandjock (Cameroun)
Figure 3:
Figure 3:
Effect of a sugar mill effluent on the longitudinal distribution of Diptera on the Mokona (A1–A5) river in Mbandjock, Cameroon.
Figure 4:
Figure 4:
Effect of the Mbandjock sugar mill operational status on the longitudinal distribution of macroinvertebrates on the Mengoala (B1–B3) river
Figure 5:
Figure 5:
Effect of effluents of SOSUCAM sugar mill effluents on the Shannon & Weaver diversity index of macroinvertebrates in the Mengoala (B1–B3) and Mokona (A1–A5) rivers in Mbandjock, Cameroon.

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