Cardiovascular risk profile and morbidity in subjects affected by type 2 diabetes mellitus with and without diabetic foot

Metabolism. 2008 May;57(5):676-82. doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2008.01.004.


Diabetic foot syndrome (DFS) is the most frequent cause of hospitalization of diabetic patients and one of the most economically demanding complications of diabetes. People with diabetes have been shown to have higher mortality than people without diabetes. On this basis, the aim of our study was to evaluate the possible role of diabetic foot as a cardiovascular risk marker in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We enrolled 102 consecutive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with diabetic foot and 123 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus without limb lesions to compare the prevalence of main cardiovascular risk factors, subclinical cardiovascular disease, previous cardiovascular morbidity, and incidence of new vascular events on a 5-year follow-up. Diabetic patients with diabetic foot were more likely to have a higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors such as hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperuricemia, and microalbuminuria or proteinuria, a higher prevalence of a previous cardiovascular morbidity (coronary artery disease, transient ischemic attack/ischemic stroke, diabetic retinopathy), and a higher prevalence of subclinical cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, diabetic patients with foot ulceration showed, on a 5-year follow-up, a higher incidence of new-onset vascular events (coronary artery disease, transient ischemic attack/ischemic stroke, diabetic retinopathy). At multivariate analysis, duration of diabetes, age, hemoglobin A1c, and DFS maintained a significant association with cardiovascular morbidity; but DFS presence showed the highest hazard ratio.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / etiology*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications*
  • Diabetic Foot / complications*
  • Female
  • Glycated Hemoglobin / analysis
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Morbidity
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Tunica Intima / pathology


  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • hemoglobin A1c protein, human