Protein synthesis is one of the best antibacterial targets that have led to the development of a number of highly successful clinical drugs. Protein synthesis is catalyzed by ribosome, which is comprised of a number of ribosomal proteins that help the catalysis process. Ribosomal protein S4 (RPSD) is one of the proteins that is a part of the ribosomal machinery and is a potential new target for the discovery of antibacterial agents. Screening of microbial extracts using antisense-sensitized rpsD Staphylococcus aureus strain led to the isolation of pleosporone, a new compound, with modest antibacterial activities with MIC ranging from 1 to 64 microg/mL. This compound showed the highest sensitivity for Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, and exhibited MIC's of 4 and 1 microg/mL, respectively. Pleosporone showed modest selectivity for the inhibition of RNA synthesis compared to DNA and protein synthesis, and showed activity against HeLa cells. Isolation, structure elucidation, and biological activity of pleosporone have been described.