GLUE-IT and PEDEL-AA: new programmes for analyzing protein diversity in randomized libraries

Nucleic Acids Res. 2008 Jul 1;36(Web Server issue):W281-5. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkn226. Epub 2008 Apr 28.


There are many methods for introducing random mutations into nucleic acid sequences. Previously, we described a suite of programmes for estimating the completeness and diversity of randomized DNA libraries generated by a number of these protocols. Our programmes suggested some empirical guidelines for library design; however, no information was provided regarding library diversity at the protein (rather than DNA) level. We have now updated our web server, enabling analysis of translated libraries constructed by site-saturation mutagenesis and error-prone PCR (epPCR). We introduce GLUE-Including Translation (GLUE-IT), which finds the expected amino acid completeness of libraries in which up to six codons have been independently varied (according to any user-specified randomization scheme). We provide two tools for assisting with experimental design: CodonCalculator, for assessing amino acids corresponding to given randomized codons; and AA-Calculator, for finding degenerate codons that encode user-specified sets of amino acids. We also present PEDEL-AA, which calculates amino acid statistics for libraries generated by epPCR. Input includes the parent sequence, overall mutation rate, library size, indel rates and a nucleotide mutation matrix. Output includes amino acid completeness and diversity statistics, and the number and length distribution of sequences truncated by premature termination codons. The web interfaces are available at

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Codon / chemistry
  • DNA / chemistry
  • Directed Molecular Evolution
  • Gene Library*
  • Internet
  • Mutagenesis*
  • Mutation
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Proteins / genetics*
  • Software*


  • Codon
  • Proteins
  • DNA