The virulence of group A streptococci (GAS) correlates closely with expression of its surface antigen, M protein, and its hyaluronic acid capsule. In studies of human GAS infection, the former has received considerable attention. For several decades, however, systematic identification of encapsulated virulent strains by the mucoid colonies they produce has been neglected in clinical studies. In part, this may be due to the capsule's evanescent expression on artificial media, its repression during convalescent carriage, lack of expertise in recognizing its colonial morphology, and the growing tendency for clinical laboratories to eschew throat cultures in favor of rapid laboratory tests for group A polysaccharide. Older and more recent studies are reviewed here that emphasize the capsule's basic role in infection. We believe that it is time to refocus newer clinical studies and techniques on achieving early recognition of potentially dangerous, heavily encapsulated strains of GAS for which spread may be prevented.