Liver transplantation (LTx) for metastatic endocrine tumors (MET) remains controversial due to the lack of clear selection criteria. From 1989 to 2005, 85 patients underwent LTx for MET. The primary tumor was located in the pancreas or duodenum in 40 cases, digestive tract in 26 and bronchial tree in five. In the remaining 14 cases, primary location was undetermined at the time of LTx. Hepatomegaly (explanted liver > or =120% of estimated standard liver volume) was observed in 53 patients (62%). Extrahepatic resection was performed concomitantly with LTx in 34 patients (40%), including upper abdominal exenteration (UAE) in seven. Postoperative in-hospital mortality was 14%. Overall 5-year survival was 47%. Independent factors of poor prognosis according to multivariate analysis included UAE (relative risk (RR): 3.72), primary tumor in duodenum or pancreas (RR: 2.94) and hepatomegaly (RR: 2.63). After exclusion of cases involving concomitant UAE, the other two factors were combined into a risk model. Five-year survival rate was 12% for the 23 patients presenting both unfavorable prognostic factors versus 68% for the 55 patients presenting one or neither factor (p < 10(-7)). LTx can benefit selected patients with nonresectable MET. Patients presenting duodeno-pancreatic MET in association with hepatomegaly are poor indications for LTx.