Candiduria is a common nosocomial infection afflicting the urinary tract. This review is aimed at providing an updated summary of the problem in hospitalized adult patients. A review of English Medline literature published between Jan 1970 until June 2007 was performed. Reviews, clinical trials and case-controlled studies in adult patients were included. Risk factors for candiduria included urinary indwelling catheters, use of antibiotics, elderly age, underlying genitourinary tract abnormality, previous surgery and presence of diabetes mellitus. Presence of candiduria may represent only colonization and there are no consistent diagnostic criteria to define significant infection. Candiduria may not be associated with candidemia and most cases are asymptomatic. Asymptomatic candiduria is usually benign, and does not require local or systemic antifungal therapy. Physicians need to confirm the infection by a second sterile urine sample, adopt non-pharmacologic interventions and modify risk factors. Mortality rate can be high particularly in debilitated patients and awareness to validate candiduria is necessary to stratify treatment according to patient status. Appropriate use of anti fungal drugs, when indicated, should not replace correction of the underlying risk factors. Treatment of symptomatic candiduria is less controversial and easier.