Chlamydia trachomatis positivity rates among men tested in selected venues in the United States: a review of the recent literature

Sex Transm Dis. 2008 Nov;35(11 Suppl):S8-S18. doi: 10.1097/OLQ.0b013e31816938ba.


The cost-effectiveness of screening men for Chlamydia trachomatis depends in part on the prevalence of chlamydia in the screened population and the ease with which screening programs can be implemented. Screening in venues with high rates of chlamydia positivity among men may therefore be an important adjunct to chlamydia control. To evaluate the recent US literature on chlamydia positivity in chlamydia screening programs among asymptomatic men in nonsexually transmitted disease clinic settings, we reviewed published articles between 1995 and June 2007, using PubMed as the primary search tool. Articles were abstracted and positivity rates summarized by type of venue, race/ethnicity, age group, and US region. The overall median positivity rate was 5.1%. The highest rates were observed among men tested in juvenile (7.9%) and adult (6.8%) detention facilities, among blacks (6.7%), the 15 to 19 years old (6.1%) and 20 to 24 years old (6.5%) age groups, and among men screened in the southern United States (6.4%). Chlamydia rates among men are high in certain venues, particularly correctional settings, but also depend on the demographic composition of the target population and location. Programs considering male chlamydia screening programs should conduct pilot programs to assess chlamydia positivity as well as feasibility and cost in target venues.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Ambulatory Care Facilities
  • Antibodies, Bacterial / blood*
  • Chlamydia Infections / diagnosis
  • Chlamydia Infections / epidemiology*
  • Chlamydia Infections / microbiology
  • Chlamydia trachomatis / immunology*
  • Community-Institutional Relations*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mass Screening / methods*
  • Prisons*
  • Schools*
  • United States / epidemiology
  • Young Adult


  • Antibodies, Bacterial