Transcriptional control by PARP-1: chromatin modulation, enhancer-binding, coregulation, and insulation

Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2008 Jun;20(3):294-302. doi: 10.1016/ Epub 2008 Apr 29.


The regulation of gene expression requires a wide array of protein factors that can modulate chromatin structure, act at enhancers, function as transcriptional coregulators, or regulate insulator function. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), an abundant and ubiquitous nuclear enzyme that catalyzes the NAD(+)-dependent addition of ADP-ribose polymers on a variety of nuclear proteins, has been implicated in all of these functions. Recent biochemical, genomic, proteomic, and cell-based studies have highlighted the role of PARP-1 in each of these processes and provided new insights about the molecular mechanisms governing PARP-1-dependent regulation of gene expression. In addition, these studies have demonstrated how PARP-1 functions as an integral part of cellular signaling pathways that culminate in gene-regulatory outcomes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose / metabolism*
  • Animals
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • Enhancer Elements, Genetic / genetics
  • Gene Expression Regulation / genetics*
  • Genome / genetics
  • Humans
  • Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1
  • Poly Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose / biosynthesis*
  • Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases / chemistry
  • Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases / genetics*
  • Protein Processing, Post-Translational / genetics
  • Protein Structure, Tertiary / genetics
  • Transcription, Genetic / genetics*


  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose
  • Poly Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose
  • PARP1 protein, human
  • Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1
  • Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases