The G-protein coupled receptor GPR54 and its ligand, KiSS-1-derived peptide kisspeptin-54, appear to play an important role in the mechanism of puberty. This study measures the release of kisspeptin-54 in the stalk-median eminence (S-ME) during puberty and examines its potential role in the pubertal increase in LHRH-1 release in female rhesus monkeys. First, developmental changes in release of kisspeptin-54 and LHRH-1 were assessed in push-pull perfusate samples obtained from the S-ME of prepubertal, early pubertal, and midpubertal female rhesus monkeys. Whereas LHRH-1 levels in 10-min intervals had been measured previously for other experiments, kisspeptin-54 levels in 40-min pooled samples were newly measured by RIA. The results indicate that a significant increase in kisspeptin-54 release occurred in association with the pubertal increase in LHRH-1 release and that a nocturnal increase in kisspeptin-54 release was already observed in prepubertal monkeys and continued through the pubertal period. Second, we measured kisspeptin-54 release in the S-ME of midpubertal monkeys at 10-min intervals using a microdialysis method. Kisspeptin-54 release in the S-ME was clearly pulsatile with an interpulse interval of about 60 min, and approximately 75% of kisspeptin-54 pulses were correlated with LHRH-1 pulses. Finally, the effect of kisspeptin-10 on LHRH-1 release was examined with the microdialysis method. Kisspeptin-10 infusion through a microdialysis probe significantly stimulated LHRH-1 release in a dose-dependent manner. Collectively, the results are consistent with the hypothesis that kisspeptin plays a role in puberty.