Protocols for preparing and culturing primary keratinocytes from newborn and adult mouse epidermis have evolved over the past 35 years. This protocol is now routinely applied to mice of various genetic backgrounds for in vitro studies of signaling pathways in differentiation and cell transformation, and for assessing the in vivo phenotype of altered keratinocytes in grafts of cells on immunodeficient mice. Crucial in the development and application of the procedure was the observation that keratinocytes proliferate in media of low calcium concentration, but rapidly commit to differentiation at calcium concentrations >0.07 mM after the initial attachment period. Preparing primary keratinocytes from ten newborn mice requires 2-3 h of hands-on time. Related procedures are also provided: preparing immature hair follicle buds, developing dermal hair follicles and fibroblasts from newborn mice, preparing primary keratinocytes from adult mice and grafting cell mixtures on athymic nude mice.