Results of ocular dominance testing depend on assessment method

J AAPOS. 2008 Aug;12(4):365-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jaapos.2008.01.017. Epub 2008 May 2.


Purpose: We developed a near ocular dominance test modeled after the distance hole-in-the-card test and assessed both test-retest reliability of four tests of ocular dominance and agreement between tests.

Methods: Forty-six subjects aged 18 to 78 years with visual acuity 20/40 or better in each eye were enrolled from a primary care practice. All subjects had normal eye examinations, with the exception of refractive error, and were examined in their habitual correction. Subjects were tested twice each with the distance hole-in-the-card test, new near hole-in-the-card test, near convergence test, and the Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group fixation preference test.

Results: There was excellent test-retest reliability for each ocular dominance test. Nevertheless, there was only moderate to slight agreement between each possible pairing of tests.

Conclusions: Results of ocular dominance tests vary depending on both the testing distance and the specific activity performed as part of the testing procedure.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Dominance, Ocular / physiology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Observer Variation
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Vision Tests / methods*
  • Vision, Binocular / physiology*
  • Visual Acuity / physiology
  • Visual Perception / physiology*
  • Young Adult