Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) affects 1-3% of children in the at-risk population of those aged 10-16 years. The aetiopathogensis of this disorder remains unknown, with misinformation about its natural history. Non-surgical treatments are aimed to reduce the number of operations by preventing curve progression. Although bracing and physiotherapy are common treatments in much of the world, their effectiveness has never been rigorously assessed. Technological advances have much improved the ability of surgeons to safely correct the deformity while maintaining sagittal and coronal balance. However, we do not have long-term results of these changing surgical treatments. Much has yet to be learned about the general health, quality of life, and self-image of both treated and untreated patients with AIS.