The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) was licensed in Norway in 2001. In July 2006, PCV-7 was introduced in the Norwegian Childhood Vaccination Programme in a 2+1 dose schedule, with immunizations administered at 3, 5 and 12 months of age. PCV-7 was offered through the vaccination programme to all children born from January 2006, i.e. a catch-up for children aged 3-6 months. Prior to 2006 the use of PCV-7 was negligible. The effectiveness of the PCV-7 vaccination programme was assessed using data on invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) incidence obtained from the Norwegian Surveillance System for Communicable Diseases, serotype distribution from the National Reference Laboratory for Pneumococci, and vaccine coverage and vaccination status from the Norwegian National Vaccination Register. Vaccine coverage quickly reached high levels; 95% of children >3 months born from January 2006 had received at least one immunization with PCV-7. The incidence rate of IPD among children <2 years rapidly declined; the rate of vaccine serotype IPD in this age group fell from an average of 47.1 cases/100,000 population in the 2 years prior to PCV-7 introduction to 13.7 cases/100,000 population in 2007. The incidence rate of nonvaccine serotype IPD remained stable. The vaccine programme effectiveness was estimated to be 74% (95% CI 57-85%). No vaccine failure was seen after complete primary immunization with two vaccine doses. Our findings indicate that PCV-7 provides highly effective protection against vaccine serotype IPD when administered in a 2+1 dose schedule.