The productivity measurement and enhancement system: a meta-analysis

J Appl Psychol. 2008 May;93(3):540-67. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.93.3.540.


Meta-analytic procedures were used to examine data from 83 field studies of the Productivity Measurement and Enhancement System (ProMES). The article expands the evidence on effectiveness of the intervention, examines where it has been successful, and explores moderators related to its success. Four research questions were explored and results indicate that (a) ProMES results in large improvements in productivity; (b) these effects last over time, in some cases years; (c) the intervention results in productivity improvements in many different types of settings (i.e., type of organization, type of work, type of worker, country); and (d) moderator variables are related to the degree of productivity improvement. These moderator variables include how closely the study followed the original ProMES methodology, the quality of feedback given, whether changes were made in the feedback system, the degree of interdependence of the work group, and centralization of the organization. Implications based on these findings are discussed for future use of this intervention, and the system is discussed as an example for evidence-based management.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Efficiency, Organizational*
  • Humans
  • Psychological Theory
  • Reinforcement, Psychology*