The proPO-system: pros and cons for its role in invertebrate immunity

Trends Immunol. 2008 Jun;29(6):263-71. doi: 10.1016/ Epub 2008 May 3.


Melanisation is an important immune response in many invertebrates. Recent evidence also strongly implies that the melanisation (prophenoloxidase activating) cascade is intimately associated with the appearance of factors stimulating cellular defence by aiding phagocytosis and encapsulation reactions. However, some controversy exists in the field, and at least in flies and mosquitoes, the successful combat of some pathogens does not seem to be dependent on phenoloxidase activity. This may be because of redundancy among separate immune mechanisms, inappropriate testing, species differences or a combination thereof. Recently, by using RNA interference against phenoloxidase or in specific host-pathogen interactions where the pathogen prevents melanin production by the host, convincing data have confirmed the importance of this cascade in invertebrate innate immunity.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bacterial Infections / immunology
  • Bacterial Infections / prevention & control
  • Crustacea*
  • Enzyme Activators / immunology
  • Enzyme Activators / pharmacology
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / immunology
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • Immunity / drug effects
  • Immunity / physiology*
  • Insecta
  • Melanins / biosynthesis*
  • Melanins / immunology
  • Monophenol Monooxygenase / immunology
  • Monophenol Monooxygenase / metabolism*
  • Receptors, Pattern Recognition / immunology
  • Receptors, Pattern Recognition / metabolism
  • Serine Endopeptidases / immunology
  • Serine Endopeptidases / metabolism
  • Signal Transduction / immunology


  • Enzyme Activators
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Melanins
  • Receptors, Pattern Recognition
  • Monophenol Monooxygenase
  • Serine Endopeptidases