Rho GTPases contribute to multiple cellular processes that could affect cancer progression, including cytoskeletal dynamics, cell cycle progression, transcriptional regulation, cell survival and vesicle trafficking. In vitro several Rho GTPases have oncogenic activity and/or can promote cancer cell invasion, and this correlates with increased expression and activity in a variety of cancers. Conversely, other family members appear to act as tumour suppressors and are deleted, mutated or downregulated in some cancers. Genetic models are starting to provide new information on how Rho GTPases affect cancer development and progression. Here, we discuss how Rho GTPases could contribute to different steps of cancer progression, including proliferation, survival, invasion and metastasis.