The last two decades have witnessed a remarkable activity in the development and use of molecular markers both in animal and plant systems. This activity started with low-throughput restriction fragment length polymorphisms and culminated in recent years with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which are abundant and uniformly distributed. Although the latter became the markers of choice for many, their discovery needed previous sequence information. However, with the availability of microarrays, SNP platforms have been developed, which allow genotyping of thousands of markers in parallel. Besides SNPs, some other novel marker systems, including single feature polymorphisms, diversity array technology and restriction site-associated DNA markers, have also been developed, where array-based assays have been utilized to provide for the desired ultra-high throughput and low cost. These microarray-based markers are the markers of choice for the future and are already being used for construction of high-density maps, quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping (including expression QTLs) and genetic diversity analysis with a limited expense in terms of time and money. In this study, we briefly describe the characteristics of these array-based marker systems and review the work that has already been done involving development and use of these markers, not only in simple eukaryotes like yeast, but also in a variety of seed plants with simple or complex genomes.